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GlamWiki – 58

Friday, May 8th, 2009

Wikipedia:Huggle/Whitelist

Automatically updating whitelist (HG)

← Previous revision Revision as of 17:02, 8 May 2009
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GlamWiki – 57

Tuesday, May 5th, 2009

User:Ernstblumberg/draft article

Created page with ‘Precious stones are stones remarkable for their colour, brilliancy, or rarity. Such stones have at all times been held in high esteem everywhere, particularly in …’

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Precious stones are stones remarkable for their colour, brilliancy, or
rarity. Such stones have at all times been held in high esteem everywhere,
particularly in the East where their use and adornement hahe served ceremonial, ritualistic and stylistic purposes.

Sacred Scripture illustrates that very early on the Eastern civilizations appropriated them for diverse ornamental uses:rings, bracelets, collars, necklaces; the crowns of kings, their garments and those of their officers and of the priests were all set with precious stones.

The Hebrews obtained their precious stones from Arabia, India, and Egypt. At the
time of the Exodus Egypt was flooded with riches, and the Israelites
on leaving the land possessed themselves of many precious stones, according to
the commandment of God (Ex., iii, 22; xii, 35-36). Later when they were settled
in Palestine they could easily obtain stones from the merchant caravans
travelling from Babylonia or Persia to Egypt and those from Saba and Reema to
Tyre (Ezech., xxvii, 22) Solomon even equipped a fleet which returned from Ophir
laden with precious stones (III Kings, x, 11).

The precious stones of the Bible are chiefly of interest in connection with
the breastplate of the high-priest (Ex., xxviii, 17-20; xxxix, 10-13), the
treasure of the King of Tyre (Ezech., xxviii, 13), and the foundations of the
New Jerusalem (Tob., xiii, 16-17, in the Greek text, and more fully, Apoc., xxi,
18-21). The twelve stones of the breastplate and the two stones of the
shoulder-ornaments were considered by the Jews as the most
precious; they undoubtedly serve as the standard of whatever is beautiful and
rich beyond measure. Both Ezech., xxviii, 13, and Apoc., xxi, 18-21, are
patterned after the model of the rational and further allude to the twelve tribes of Israel.

The stones composition were the objects of a considerable amount
of literature from the fourth century. That such a literature should have arisen
is of itself convincing proof that the identification of the stones was no easy
problem to solve. It must be remembered too that at the time of the Septuagint
translation the stones to which the Hebrew names apply could no longer be
identified, and the translators rendered the same Hebrew name by different Greek
words. So also did Josephus who, however, claimed he had seen the actual stones.
This, coupled with the fact that the late Biblical lists, although visibly
depending on that of Exodus, exhibit here and there notable changes, makes the
task of identifying the stones a difficult one.

The ancients did not classify their precious stones by analyzing their composition
and crystalline forms: names were given them from their colour, their use, or
the country from which they came. Thus it happens that stones of the same or
nearly the same colour, but of different composition or crystalline form, bear
identical names. Another problem is nomenclature due to the names having changed in the course of time: thus the ancient chrysolite is our topaz, the sapphire is our
lazuli, etc. However, we know most of the stones accounted precious in Egypt,
Assyria, and Babylonia. Owing to the neighbourhood and to the influence of these
countries on Palestine, it is highly probable that the score of substances
called in the Bible “desirable stones” (Is., liv, 12) must be contained in the
fairly long list of the precious and ornamental stones of the Assyro-Babylonians
and the Egyptians.

<P>This is not the place to enter upon a critical and exegetical discussion of
the Biblical passages above referred to, where lists of precious stones are
given. It will be sufficient to treat briefly of these stones according to the
alphabetical order of the English names.</P>
<P><B>AGATE</B>, Heb. <I>shbw</I>; Sept. <I>achates</I>; Vulg. <I>achates</I>
(Ex., xxviii, 19; xxxix, 12, in Heb. and Vulg.; also Ezech., xxviii, 13, in
Sept.). – This is the second stone of the third row of the rational, where it
very probably represented the tribe of Aser. The derivation of the Hebrew word
is doubtful, but the stone has generally been acknowledged to be the agate.
Fürst (Hebr. u. Chald. Wörterb.) derives <I>shbw</I> from <I>shbb</I>, “to
flame”; it may also be related to Saba (<I>shba</I>), whence caravans brought
the stone to Palestine. The Greek and Latin names are taken from the river
Achates, the modern Dirillo, in Sicily, where this stone was first found
(Theophrastus, “De lapid.”, 38; Pliny, “Hist. nat.”, XXXVII, liv). The stone
belongs to the silex family (chalcedony species) and is formed by deposits of
siliceous beds in hollows of rocks. To this mode of formation are due the bands
of various colours which it contains. Its conchoidal clevage is susceptible of a
high polish. To this stone various medicinal powers were attributed until far
into the Middle Ages. It was supposed to render the action of all poisons void,
to counteract the infection of contagious diseases; if held in the hand or in
the mouth it was believed to alleviate fever. The eagle, it was said, placed an
agate in its nest to guard its young against the bite of venomous animals. The
red agate was credited with the power of sharpening the vision. At present agate
and onyx differ only in the manner in which the stone is cut; if it is so cut as
to show the layers of colour, it is called agate; if cut parallel to the lines,
onyx. Formerly an agate that was banded with well-defined colours was the onyx.
The banded agate is used for the manufacture of cameos.</P>
<P><B>AMETHYST</B>, Heb. <I>ahlmh</I>; Sept. <I>amethystos</I>, also Apoc., xxi,
20, where it is the twelfth and last stone of the foundation of the New
Jerusalem. It is the third stone in the third row of the rational, representing
the tribe of Issachar (Ex., xxviii, 19; xxxix, 12); the Septuagint enumerates it
among the riches of the King of Tyre (Ezech., xxviii, 13). The Greek name
alludes to the popular belief that the amethyst was a preventive of
intoxication; hence beakers were made of amethyst for carousals, and inveterate
drinkers wore amulets made of it to counteract the action of wine. Abenesra and
Kimchi explain the Hebrew <I>ahlmh</I> in an analogous manner, deriving it from
<I>hlm</I>, to dream; <I>hlm</I> in its first meaning signifies “to be hard”
(Fürst, Hebr. Handwörterbuch). We have no reason to doubt the accuracy of the
translation since we find a general agreement among the various versions;
Josephus (Ant. Jud., III, vii, 6) also has “amethyst”; the Targum of Onkelos and
the Syriac Version have “calf’s eye”, indicating the colour. The amethyst is a
brilliant transparent stone of a purple colour resembling that of diluted wine
and varying in shade from the violet purple to rose. There are two kinds of
amethysts: the oriental amethyst, a species of sapphire, is very hard (cf. Heb.,
<I>hlm</I>), and when colourless can hardly be distinguished from the diamond;
the occidental amethyst is of the silex family, hence different in composition
from the oriental stone. But the identity of names is accounted for by the
identity of colour. The occidental amethyst is easily engraved. It is found of
various sizes. Its shape is different from the round pebble to the hexagonal,
pyramid-capped crystal.</P>
<P><B>BERYL</B>, Heb. <I>yhlm</I>; Sept. <I>beryllos</I>; Vulg. <I>beryllus</I>.
– In the breastplate this stone occupied the third place of the second row and
was understood to represent Nephtali (Ex., xxviii, 19; xxxix, 13); according to
the Septuagint it is the second of the fourth row, and third of the fourth
according to the Vulgate; Ezech., xxviii, 13, mentions it in the third place; it
is cited also in the Greek text of Tob., xiii, 17, but is wanting in the
Vulgate; Apoc., xxi, 20, gives it as the eighth stone of the foundation of the
New Jerusalem. There is great difference of opinion as to the exact Hebrew
correlative of this word. The best supported is <I>yhlm</I>, though <I>shhm</I>
also does not lack probability. <I>Yshpht</I> has likewise been suggested, but
without sufficient reason, it seems, for to this Hebrew <I>yshpht</I> must
correspond jasper, Gr. <I>iaspis</I>, Lat. <I>jaspis</I>. This mistaken idea
most probably arose from the supposition that the translated words must have
occupied the same position as in the original. This is not the case, as a
comparison of the the Greek and Latin translations shows; in the Vulgate,
indeed, we find jasper in the same position as <I>yshpht</I>, whereas the Greek
<I>beryllos</I> does not correspond to the Latin <I>beryllus;</I> the same may
have happened as regards the translation of the Hebrew into Greek, especially as
in the old manner of writing the two words <I>yshlm</I> and <I>shlm</I> might be
easily confused. The authority of Josephus is here of little weight, for he most
likely quoted from memory, the position of the words being at variance even in
his two lists (Bell. Jud., V, v, 7; Ant. Jud., III, vii). Our choice, therefore,
is limited to the two words <I>yshlm</I> and <I>shlm</I>. By comparing various
texts of the Vulgate – the Greek is very inconsistent – we find that <I>shlm</I>
is always translated by onyx: this alone seems sufficient to render fairly
probable the opinion that beryl corresponds to Heb. <I>yhlm</I>. That the beryl
was among the stones of the rational appears beyond doubt since all translations
mention it. The etymology giving us no special help, by elimination we come to
the generally accepted conclusion that beryl and <I>yhlm</I> stand for each
other. The beryl is a stone composed of silica, alumina, and glucina. The beryl
and the emerald are of the same species. The difference between the beryl, the
aqua marine, and the emerald is determined by the colouring matter and the
peculiar shade of each. The beryl, though sometimes white, is usually of a light
blue verging into a yellowish green; the emerald is more transparent and of a
finer hue than the beryl; as a gem, it is more beautiful, and hence more costly;
the aqua marine is a beautiful sea-green variety. The emerald derives its colour
from a small quantity of oxide of chromium; the beryl and aqua marine from a
small quantity of oxide of iron. The beryl occurs in the shape either of a
pebble or of an hexagonal prism. It is found in metamorphic limestone, slate,
micaschist, gneiss, and granite. In ancient times it was obtained from Upper
Egypt and is still found in the mica slate of Mt. Zaborah, The largest beryls
known have been found in Acworth and Grafton, New Hampshire, and in Royalston,
Massachusetts, United States of America; one weighs 2900 lb., measures 51 inches
in length, 32 inches through in one direction and 22 in another transverse. The
beryl has been employed for cabalistic uses (Aubrey, “Miscellanies”).</P>
<P><B>CARBUNCLE</B>, Heb., <I>gphr</I>; Sept. <I>anthrax</I> (Ex., xxviii, 18;
xxxix, 11; Ezech., xxviii, 13; omitted in Ezech., xxvii, 16); Vulg.,
<I>carbunculus</I> (Ex., xxviii, 18; xxxix, 11; Ezech., xxviii, 13),
<I>gemma</I> (Ezech., xxvii, 16), the first stone of the second row of the
rational; it represented Juda, and is also the eighth stone mentioned of the
riches of the King of Tyre (Ezech., xxviii, 13), being, not a native product,
but an object of importation (Ezech., xxvii, 16); it is perhaps the third stone
of the foundation of the celestial city (Apoc., xxi, 19). The ancient authors
are far from agreeing on the precise nature of this stone. It very probably
corresponds to the <I>anthrax</I> of Theophrastus (De lap., 18), the
<I>carbunculus</I> of Pliny (Hist. nat., XXXVII, xxv), the <I>charchedonius</I>
of Petronius, and the <I>ardjouani</I> of the Arabs. If so it is a red
glittering stone, probably the Oriental ruby, though the appellation may have
been applied to various red gems. Theophrastus says of it: “Its colour is red
and of such a kind that when it is held against the sun it resembles a burning
coal.” This description tallies fairly well with that of the Oriental ruby. He
relates also that the most perfect carbuncles were brought from Carthage,
Marseilles, Egypt, and the neighbourhood of Siena. Carbuncles were named
differently according to the places whence they came. Pliny (Hist. nat., XXXVII,
xxv) cites the lithizontes, or Indian carbuncles, the amethystizontes, the
colour of which approached that of the amethyst, and the sitites. Most probably,
then, the name of carbuncle applied to several stones.</P>
<P><B>CARNELIAN</B>, Heb. <I>arm</I>, to be red, especially “red blooded”; Sept.
and Apoc. <I>sardion</I>; Vulg. <I>sardius;</I> the first stone of the
breastplate (Ex., xxviii, 17; xxxix, 10) representing Ruben; also the first
among the stones of the King of Tyre (Ezech., xxviii, 13); the sixth foundation
stone of the celestial city (Apoc., xxi, 19). The word <I>sardion</I> has
sometimes been rendered sardonyx; this is a mistake, for the same word is
equivalent to carnelian in Theophrastus (De lap., 55) and Pliny (Hist. nat.,
XXXVII, xxxi), who derive the name from that of the city of Sardes where, they
say, it was first found. The carnelian is a siliceous stone and a species of
chalcedony. Its colour is a flesh-hued red, varying from the palest flesh-colour
to a deep blood-red. It is of a conchoidal structure. Usually its colour is
without clouds or veins; but sometimes delicate veins of extremely light red or
white are found arranged much like the rings of an agate. Carnelian is used for
rings and seals. The finest carnelians are found in the East Indies.</P>
<P><B>CHALCEDONY</B>, Apoc., xxi, 19, <I>chalkedon</I>; Vulg.
<I>chalcedonius</I>, the third foundation stone of the celestial Jerusalem. Some
claim the writing <I>chalkedon</I> is erroneous, and that it should be
<I>charkedon</I>, the carbuncle. Though this view is countenanced by but few
Manuscripts, yet it is not devoid of reason; for whilst the other eleven stones
correspond to a stone in the rational it is singular that this should be the
only exception. Moreover the ancients very often confounded the names of these
two stones. The chalcedony is a siliceous stone. Its name is supposed to be
derived from Chalcedon, in Bithynia, whence the ancients obtained the stone. It
is a species of agate and bears various names according to its colour. It is
usually made up of concentric circles of various colours. The most valuable of
these stones are found in the East Indies. Sets for rings, seals, and, in the
East, cups and beakers are made of chalcedon.</P>
<P><B>CHODCHOD</B>, <I>kdkd</I> (Is., liv, 12; Ezech., xxvii, 16); Sept.
<I>iaspis</I> (Is., liv, 12), <I>chorchor</I> (Ezech., xxvii, 16); Vulg.
<I>jaspis</I> (Is., liv, 12), <I>chodchod</I> (Ezech., xvii, 16). – This word is
used only twice in the Bible. The chodchod is generally identified with the
Oriental ruby. The translation of the word in Is. both by the Septuagint and the
Vulgate is jasper; in Ezech. the word is merely transliterated; the Greek
<I>chorchor</I> is explained by considering how easy it is to mistake a
<I>resh</I> for a <I>daleth</I>. “What chodchod signifies”, says St. Jerome, “I
have until now not been able to find” (Comment. in Ezech., xxvii, 16, in P. L.,
XXV, 255). In Is. he follows the Septuagint and translates <I>chodchod</I> by
<I>jaspis</I>. The word is probably derived from <I>phyr</I>, “to throw fire”;
the stone was therefore brilliant and very likely red. This supposition is
strengthened by the fact that the Arabic word <I>kadzkadzat</I>, evidently
derived from the same stem as <I>chodchod</I>, designates a bright red. It was
therefore a kind of ruby, likely the Oriental ruby, perhaps also the carbuncle
(see above).</P>
<P><B>CHRYSOLITE</B>, Heb. <I>trshysh</I> (Ex., xxviii, 20; xxxix, 13; Ezech.,
i, 16; x, 9; xxviii, 13; Cant., v, 14; Dan., x, 6); Sept., <I>chrysolithos</I>
(Ex., xxviii, 20; xxxix, 13; Ezech., xxviii, 13); <I>tharsis</I> (Cant., v, 14;
Dan., x, 6); <I>tharseis</I> (Ezech., 1, 16; x, 9); Vulg. <I>chrysolithus</I>
(Ex., xxviii, 20; xxxix, 13; Ezech., x, 9; xxviii, 13; Dan., x, 6),
<I>hyacinthus</I> (Cant., v, 14); <I>quasi visio maris</I> (Ezech., i, 16);
Apoc., xxi, 20, <I>chrysolithos</I>; Vulg. <I>chrysolithus</I>. – This is the
tenth stone of the rational, representing the tribe of Zabulon; it stands fourth
in the enumeration of Ezech., xxviii, 13, and is given as the seventh foundation
stone of the celestial city in Apoc., xxi, 20. In none of the Hebrew texts is
there any hint as to the nature of this stone; however, since the Septuagint
habitually translates the Hebrew word by <I>chrysolithos</I>, except where it
merely transliterates it and in Ezech., x, 9, since, moreover, the Vulgate
follows this translation with very few exceptions, and Aquila, Josephus, and St.
Epiphanius agree in their rendering, we can safely accept the opinion that the
chrysolite of the ancients, which is our topaz, was meant. The word
<I>tharsis</I> very likely points to the place whence the stone was brought
(Tharsis). The modern chrysolite is a green oblong hexagonal prism of unequal
sides terminated by two triangular pyramids. The topaz, or ancient chrysolite,
is an octangular prism of an orange-yellow colour; it is composed of alumina,
silica, hydrofluoric acid, and iron. it is found in Ceylon, Arabia, and Egypt,
and several species were admitted to exist (Pliny, “Hist. nat.”, XXXVII, xlv).
In the Middle Ages it was believed to possess the power of dispelling the fears
of night and of driving away devils; it was also supposed to be an excellent
cure for the diseases of the eye.</P>
<P><B>CHRYSOPRASUS</B>, Greek <I>chrysoprasos</I>, the tenth foundation stone of
the celestial Jerusalem (Apoc., xxi, 20). This is perhaps the agate of Ex.,
xxviii, 20, and xxxix, 13, since the chrysoprasus was not very well known among
the ancients. It is a kind of green agate, composed mostly of silica and a small
percentage of nickel.</P>
<P><B>CORAL</B>, Heb. <I>ramwt</I> (Job, xxviii, 18; Prov., xxiv, 7; Ezech.,
xxvii, 16); Sept. <I>meteora, ramoth</I>; Vulg. <I>excelsa</I>, <I>sericum</I>.
– The Hebrew word seems to come from <I>tas</I>, “to be high”, probably
connoting a resemblance to a tree. It may be also that the name came from a
strange country, as did the coral itself. It is obvious that the ancient
versions have completely missed the sense; they even felt it so well that in one
place they merely transliterated the Hebrew word. In Ezech., xxvii, 16, coral is
mentioned as one of the articles brought by the Syrians to Tyre. The Phœniclans
mounted beads of coral on collars and garments. These corals were obtained by
Babylonian pearl-flshers in the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean. The Hebrews made
apparently very little use of this substance, and hence it is seldom mentioned
in their writings; this explains also the difficulty felt by the translators in
rendering the word. Gesenius (Thesaurus, p. 1113) translates <I>phnynys</I>
(Job, xxviii, 18; Prov., iii, 15; viii, 11; xx, 15; xxxi, 10; Lam., iv, 7) by
“red coral”; but many maintain that the pearl is meant in these passages. The
coral spoken of in the Bible is the precious coral (<I>corallum rubrum</I>), the
formation of which is well known. It is a calcareous secretion of certain
polyps, having a tree-like formation. At present coral is found in the
Mediterranean, the northern coast of Africa furnishing the dark red, Sardinia
the yellow or salmon-coloured, and the coast of Italy the rose-pink coral. One
of the greatest coral-fisheries of the present day is Torre del Greco, near
Naples.</P>
<P><B>CRYSTAL</B>, Heb. <I>ghbsh</I> (Job, xxviii, 18), <I>qrh</I> (Ezech, i,
22): both words signify a glassy substance; Sept. <I>gabis</I>; Vulg.
<I>eminentia</I> (Job, xxviii, 18); <I>krystallos</I>, <I>crystallus</I>
(Ezech., i, 22). – This was a transparent mineral resembling glass, most
probably a variety of quartz. Job places it in the same category with gold,
onyx, sapphire, glass, coral, topaz, etc. The Targum renders the <I>qrt</I> of
Ezech. by “ice”; the versions translate by “crystal”. We find crystal again
mentioned in Apoc., iv, 6; xxi, 11; xxii, 1. In Ps. cxlvii, 17, and Ecclus.,
xliii, 22, there can be no question but that ice is meant. The word
<I>zkwkyh</I>, Job, xxviii, 17, which some translate by crystal, means
glass.</P>
<P><B>DIAMOND</B>, Heb. <I>shmyr</I>; Sept. <I>adamantinos</I>; Vulg.
<I>adamas</I>, <I>adamantinus</I> (Ezech., iii, 9; Zach., vii, 12; Jer ,xvii 1).
– Whether or not this stone is really the diamond cannot be ascertained. Many
passages in Holy Writ point indeed to the qualities of the diamond, especially
its hardness (Ezech., iii, 9; Zach., vii, 12; Jer., xvii, 1). In the last
Jeremias informs us of a use to which this stone was put, which agrees admirably
with the use to which the diamond is put at this day: “The sin of Juda is
written with a pen of iron, with the point of a diamond”. But although diamond
is used to engrave hard substances, yet it should be remarked that other stones
may serve the same purpose. The Septuagint omits the passages of Ezech. and
Zach., while the first five verses of Jer., xvii, are missing in the Cod.
Vaticanus and Alexandrinus, but are found in the Complutensian edition and in
the Syriac and Arabic Versions. Despite the qualities mentioned in the Bible,
the stone spoken of in the places referred to may be the limpid corindon, which
exhibits the same qualities, and is used in India for the same purposes as we
use the diamond. The diamond was not very well known among the ancients; and if
we add to this reason the similarity between the words <I>smiris</I>, the
Egyptian <I>asmir</I>, “emery”, a species of corindon used to polish precious
stones, and <I>shmyr</I>, the Hebrew word supposed to mean the diamond, we may
conclude with probability that the limpid corindon was intended. Aben-Esra and
Abarbanel translate <I>yhlm</I> by “diamond”; but <I>yhlm</I> we have shown
above to be the beryl. The diamond is made up of pure carbon, mostly of a white
transparent colour, but sometimes tinted. The white diamond is the most
precious, owing to its beauty and rarity. South Africa contains the largest
diamond fields.</P>
<P><B>EMERALD</B>, Heb. <I>brqm</I>; Sept. <I>smaragdos</I>; Vulg.
<I>smaragdus;</I> the third stone of the rational (Ex., xxviii, 17; xxxix, 10),
where it represents the tribe of Levi; it is the ninth stone in Ezech., xxviii,
13, and the fourth foundation stone of the celestial Jerusalem (Apoc., xxi, 19).
The same precious stone is also mentioned in Tob., xiii, 16 (Vulg. 21); Jud., x,
21 (Vulg. 19); and in the Greek text of Ecclus., xxxii, 8, but there is no
indication of it in the Manuscript B. of the Hebrew text, found in the Genizah
of Cairo in 1896. That <I>brhm</I> stands for “emerald” is verified by the fact
that practically all versions, as well as Josephus (Ant. Jud., III, vii, 5;
Bell. Jud., V, v, 7) translate it thus. The Hebrew root <I>brq</I>, from which
it is probably derived, signifies “to glitter”, which quality agrees eminently
with the emerald. The word may also come from the Sanskrit <I>marakata</I> which
is certainly the emerald; the Greek form <I>smaragdos</I> is not so distant from
the Hebrew that no similarity can be found between them. In Job, xiii, 21; Jud.,
x, 19; Ecclus., xxxii, 8; and Apoc., xxi, 19, the emerald is certainly the stone
spoken of. The word <I>bphr</I> also has sometimes been translated by
<I>smaragdus;</I> but this is a mistake, for <I>bphr</I> is the carbuncle. The
emerald is a green variety of beryl and is composed of silicate of alumina and
glucina. Its form is a hexagonal crystal; its colour is a brilliant reflecting
green. The stone admits of a high polish. The emerald is found in metamorphic
rocks, granites, and mica schists; the finest specimens come from Muzo, Bogotá,
South America. The ancients obtained the stone from Egypt and India. It has
sometimes been asserted that they knew nothing of the emerald; but this is
plainly refuted by Pliny, Theophrastus, and others, though the name may have
been used possibly for other stones. In the Middle Ages marvellous powers were
attributed to the emerald, the most conspicuous being the power to preserve or
heal the sight.</P>
<P><B>HYACINTH</B>, Greek <I>hyakinthos</I>; Vulg. <I>hyacinthus</I> (Apoc.,
xxi, 20); the eleventh stone of the foundation of the heavenly city. It
corresponds very probably to Heb., the ligurius of Ex., xxviii, 19; xxxix, 12
(St. Epiphan., “De duodecim gemmis” in P. G., XLIII, 300). The stone spoken of
in Cant., v, 14, and called <I>hyacinthus</I> in the Vulgate is the Hebrew
<I>hrshysh</I>, which has been shown above to be the chrysolite. The exact
nature of the hyacinth cannot be determined, the name having been applied to
several stones of similar colours, and most probably designating stones of the
same colours as the flower hyacinth. Hyacinth is a zircon of a crimson, red, or
orange hue. It is harder than quartz and its cleavage is undulating and
sometimes lamellated. Its form is an oblong quadrangular prism terminated on
both ends by a quadrangular pyramid. It was supposed to be a talisman against
tempests.</P>
<P><B>JASPER</B>, Heb. <I>yshphh</I>; Sept. <I>iaspis</I>; Vulg. <I>jaspis;</I>
the twelfth stone of the breastplate (Ex., xxviii, 18; xxxix, 11), representing
Benjamin. In the Greek and Latin texts it comes sixth, and so also in Ezech.,
xxviii, 13; in the Apocalypse it is the first (xxi, 19). Despite this difference
of position <I>jaspis</I> is undoubtedly the <I>yshphh</I> of the Hebrew text.
The jasper is an anhydrate quartz composed of silica, alumina, and iron. There
are jaspers of nearly every colour. It is a completely opaque stone of a
conchoidal cleavage. It seems to have been obtained by the Jews from India and
Egypt.</P>
<P><I>LIGURUS</I>, Heb. <I>lshs</I>; Sept. <I>ligyrion</I>; Vulg.
<I>ligurius;</I> the first stone of the third row of the rational (Ex., xxviii,
19; xxxix, 12), representing Gad. It is missing in the Hebrew of Ezech., xxviii,
13, but present in the Greek. This stone is probably the same as the hyacinth
(St. Epiphan., loc. cit.). This identification, admitted by tradition, rests on
the remark that the twelve foundation stones of the celestial city in Apoc.,
xxi, 19-20, correspond to the twelve stones of the rational, from which it would
appear that the ligurus is the same as the hyacinth. Some have identified it
with the turmaline, a view rejected by most scholars.</P>
<P><B>ONYX</B>, Heb. <I>shhm</I>; Sept. <I>onychion</I>; Vulg. <I>lapis
onychinus;</I> the eleventh stone of the breastplate in the Hebrew and the
Vulgate (Ex., xxviii, 20; xxxix, 13), representing the tribe of Joseph; in the
Sept. it is the twelfth 5tone: it is the fifth in Ezech., xxviii, 13, in the
Heb., but the twelfth in the Greek; it is called sardonyx and comes in the fifth
place in Apoc., xxi, 20. The exact nature of this stone is disputed. Many think,
because the Greek word <I>beryllos</I> occurs instead of the Hebrew <I>shhs</I>
that the beryl is meant; but this is not so (see B<SMALL>ERYL</SMALL> above).
The Vulgate indeed gives onyx as the equivalent of the Hebrew <I>shhm</I>. True,
this alone would be a very weak argument; but we have other and stronger
evidences in the fact that the Hebrew word occurs frequently in Holy Writ (Gen.,
ii, 12; Ex., xxv, 7; xxv, 9, 27; I Par., xxxix, 2; etc.) and on each occasion,
save Job, xxviii, 16, it is translated in the Vulgate by <I>lapis onychinus</I>
(<I>lapis sardonychus</I> in Job, xxviii, 16). The Greek is very inconsistent in
its translation, rendering <I>shhs</I> differently in various texts; thus in
Gen., ii, 12, it is <I>lithos prasinos, sardios</I> in Ex. xxv, 7; xxxv, 9;
<I>smaragdos</I> in Ex., xxviii, 9; xxxv, 27; xxxix, 6; <I>soam</I>, a mere
transcription of the Hebrew word in I Par., xxix, 2; and <I>onyx</I> in Job,
xxviii, 16. The other Greek translators are more uniform: Aquila has
<I>sardonyx</I> Symmachus and Theodotion have <I>onyx</I>; the paraphrase of
Onkelos had <I>burla</I>, the Syriac <I>berula</I>, both of which evidently are
the Greek <I>beryllos</I>, “beryl”. Since the translations do not observe the
same order as the Hebrew in enumerating the stones of the rational (see
B<SMALL>ERYL</SMALL> above), we are in no way bound to accept the Greek
<I>beryllos</I> as the translation of <I>shhm</I>, and relying on the testimony
of the various versions we may safely hold the onyx is the stone signified by
<I>shhm</I>. The onyx is a variety of quartz analogous to the agate and other
crypto-crystalline species. It is composed of different layers of variously
coloured carnelian much like banded agate in structure, but the layers are in
even or parallel planes. Hence it is well adapted for the cutting of cameos and
was much used for that purpose by the ancients. The colours of the best are
perfectly well defined, and are either white and black, or white, brown, and
black. The best specimens are brought from India. Sardonyx has a structure like
onyx, but is composed usually of alternate layers of white chalcedony and
carnelian, although the carnelian may be associated with layers of white, brown,
and black chalcedony. The ancients obtained the onyx from Arabia, Egypt, and
India.</P>
<P><B>PEARL</B>. – The pearl can hardly be termed a stone; we may nevertheless,
by giving the word “stone” a broad meaning, treat here of the pearl, as we have
treated above of coral. It is comparatively certain that the pearl (Greek
<I>margarite</I>, Vulg. <I>margarita</I>) was known among the Jews, at least
after the time of Solomon, as it was among the Phœnicians. What word designated
it is uncertain. The following have been suggested: <I>ghbysh</I>, which,
however, signified “crystal” (see above; also Furst, “Hebr. u. Chald.
Wörterb.”); <I>phnynym</I>, which Gesenius renders by “red coral”; <I>dr</I>,
Esth., i, 6, which is translated in the Vulg. by <I>lapis parius</I>, “marble”;
the Arabic <I>dar</I>, however, means “pearl”, and thus also Furst renders the
Hebrew word. In the New Testament we find the pearl mentioned in Matt., xiii,
45, 46; I Tim., ii, 9; etc. The pearl is a concretion consisting chiefly of
carbonate of lime found in several bivalve mollusks, but especially in the
<I>avicula margaritifera</I>. It is generally of a whitish blue, sometimes
showing a tinge of pink; there are also yellow pearls. This gem was considered
the most precious of all among the ancients, and was obtained from the Red Sea,
the Indian Ocean, and the Persian Gulf.</P>
<P><B>RUBY</B>. – This may have been either the carbuncle or the chodchod (see
above). There is, however, a choice between the oriental ruby and the spinel
ruby; but the words may have been used indiscriminately for both. The former is
extremely hard, almost as hard as the diamond, and is obtained from Ceylon,
India, and China. It is considered a most precious gem.</P>
<P><B>SAPPHIRE</B>, Heb. <I>mghry</I> Septuag. <I>sappheiron</I>; Vulg.
<I>sapphirus</I>. – The sapphire was the fifth stone of the rational (Ex.,
xxviii, 19; xxxix, 13), and represented the tribe of Dan. It is the seventh
stone in Ezech., xxviii, 14 (in the Hebrew text, for it occurs fifth in the
Greek text); it is also the second foundation stone of the celestial Jerusalem
(Apoc., xxi, 19). The genuine sapphire is a hyaline corindon of a beautiful blue
colour; it is composed of nearly pure alumina, its colour being due to the
presence of oxide of iron. The ancients gave the name of sapphire also to our
lapis-lazuli, which is likewise a blue stone, often speckled with shining
pyrites which give it the appearance of being sprinkled with gold dust. It is
composed of silica, alumina, and alkali; it is an opaque substance easily
engraved. Which of these two is referred to in the Bible? Both may be meant, but
the lapis-lazuli seems more probable, for as often as its qualities are
described, it is spoken of as being easily engraved (Lam., iv, 7; Ex., xxviii,
17; xxxix, 13). The sapphire was obtained from India.</P>
<P><B>SARDONYX</B>; <B>SARD</B>. – These two words are often confounded by
interpreters. The sard is the carnelian, while the sardonyx is a species of
onyx.</P>
<P><B>TOPAZ</B>, Heb. <I>ghtrh</I>; Sept. <I>topazion</I>; Vulg.
<I>topazius</I>, the second stone of the rational (Ex., xxviii, 17; xxxix, 19),
representing Simeon; also the second stone in Ezech., xxviii, 13; the ninth
foundation stone of the celestial Jerusalem (Apoc., xxi, 20); also mentioned in
Job, xxviii, 19. This topaz is generally believed to have been the chrysolite
rather than our topaz. The oriental topaz is composed of nearly pure alumina,
silica, and fluoric acid; its shape is an orthorhombic prism with a cleavage
transverse to its long axis. It is extremely hard and has a double refraction.
When rubbed or heated it becomes highly electric. It varies in colour according
to the country from which it comes. The Australian topaz is green or yellow; the
Tasmanian clear, bright, and transparent; the Saxon pale violet; the Bohemian
sea-green and the Brazilian red, varying from a pale red to a deep carmine. The
ancients very probably obtained it from the East.</P>
<P><SMALL>ST. EPIPHANIUS, <I>De duodecim qemmis</I> in P. G., XLIII, 294-304;
ST. ISIDORE, <I>De lapidibus</I> in <I>Etymol.,</I> xvi, 6-15, in P. L. LXXXII,
570-580; KING, <I>Antique Gems</I> (2d ed., London, 1872); IDEM, <I>The Natural
History of Gems or Decorative Stones</I> (2d ed., London, 1870); BRAUN,
<I>Vestitus sacerdotum hebrœorum</I> (Leyden, 1680); BABELON in DAREMBERG AND
SAGLIO, <I>Dict. des antiquités grecques et romaines,</I> s. v. <I>Gemmœ;</I>
LESÉTRE in VIGOUROUX, <I>Dict. de la Bible,</I> s. v. <I>Pierres précieuses;</I>
ROSENMÃœLLER, <I>Handbuch der biblischen Alterthumskunde</I> (Leipzig); WINER in
<I>Biblisches Realwörterbuch</I> (Leipzig, 1847), s. v.
<I>Edelstine.</I></SMALL></P>
<P>CHARLES L. SOUVAY</P>
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GlamWiki – 56

Saturday, May 2nd, 2009

Red Sails

Quick-adding category Songs written by David Bowie (using HotCat)

← Previous revision Revision as of 10:44, 2 May 2009
Line 44: Line 44:
[[Category:David Bowie songs]]
[[Category:David Bowie songs]]
[[Category:1979 songs]]
[[Category:1979 songs]]
  +
[[Category:Songs written by David Bowie]]

GlamWiki – 55

Friday, May 1st, 2009

United Kingdom

Music: added Duran Duran and Kate Bush

← Previous revision Revision as of 17:02, 1 May 2009
Line 532: Line 532:
Various styles of music are popular, from the indigenous [[folk music of England]], Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales, to [[Heavy metal music|Heavy metal]]. [[Glasgow]]’s contribution to the music scene was recognised in 2008 when it was named a United Nations City of Music, one of only three cities in the world to have this honour.<ref>[http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/glasgow_and_west/7570915.stm Glasgow gets city of music honour] bbc.co.uk, accessed 20 August 2008 </ref>
Various styles of music are popular, from the indigenous [[folk music of England]], Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales, to [[Heavy metal music|Heavy metal]]. [[Glasgow]]’s contribution to the music scene was recognised in 2008 when it was named a United Nations City of Music, one of only three cities in the world to have this honour.<ref>[http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/glasgow_and_west/7570915.stm Glasgow gets city of music honour] bbc.co.uk, accessed 20 August 2008 </ref>
Prominent among the UK contributors to the development of [[rock music]] in the 1960s and 1970s were [[The Beatles]], [[Rolling Stones]], [[Eric Clapton]], [[Pink Floyd]], [[Genesis]], [[Status Quo]],<ref>[http://www.statusquo.co.uk/factsheet.htm Quo Facts] statusquo.co.uk, accessed 14 October 2008</ref> [[Slade]],<ref>[http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/2245820.stm Honorary award for glam rockers] BBC News, 9 September, 2002 </ref> [[Led Zeppelin]], [[The Who]], [[Queen (band)|Queen]], [[David Bowie]], [[Rod Stewart]], [[Sting]], [[Deep Purple]], and [[Black Sabbath]]. UK artists have made significant contributions to other worldwide genres such as heavy metal, [[hard rock]], [[punk rock]], [[New Wave music|New Wave]], [[New Romantic]], [[indie rock]], [[techno]], and [[electronica]]. Notable artists have been the [[Sex Pistols]], [[The Clash]], [[Culture Club]], [[Human League]], [[The Smiths]], [[Oasis (band)|Oasis]], [[Blur (band)|Blur]], [[Radiohead]], [[Massive Attack]] and [[The Prodigy]]. There are also a number of popular music genres which have emerged from the UK and have been exported to the rest of the world. Examples of these are [[2-Tone]], [[trip hop]], [[indie pop]], Britpop, [[shoegazing]], [[hard house]] and [[dubstep]]. Most recently, internationally popular music artists have included Radiohead, the [[Spice Girls]], [[Coldplay]], [[Amy Winehouse]] and [[Leona Lewis]].
+
Prominent among the UK contributors to the development of [[rock music]] in the 1960s and 1970s were [[The Beatles]], [[Rolling Stones]], [[Eric Clapton]], [[Pink Floyd]], [[Genesis]], [[Status Quo]],<ref>[http://www.statusquo.co.uk/factsheet.htm Quo Facts] statusquo.co.uk, accessed 14 October 2008</ref> [[Slade]],<ref>[http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/2245820.stm Honorary award for glam rockers] BBC News, 9 September, 2002 </ref> [[Led Zeppelin]], [[The Who]], [[Queen (band)|Queen]], [[David Bowie]], [[Rod Stewart]], [[Sting]], [[Deep Purple]], and [[Black Sabbath]]. UK artists have made significant contributions to other worldwide genres such as heavy metal, [[hard rock]], [[punk rock]], [[New Wave music|New Wave]], [[New Romantic]], [[indie rock]], [[techno]], and [[electronica]]. Notable artists have been the [[Sex Pistols]], [[The Clash]], [[Culture Club]], [[Duran Duran]], [[Human League]], [[The Smiths]], [[Kate Bush]], [[Oasis (band)|Oasis]], [[Blur (band)|Blur]], [[Radiohead]], [[Massive Attack]] and [[The Prodigy]]. There are also a number of popular music genres which have emerged from the UK and have been exported to the rest of the world. Examples of these are [[2-Tone]], [[trip hop]], [[indie pop]], Britpop, [[shoegazing]], [[hard house]] and [[dubstep]]. Most recently, internationally popular music artists have included Radiohead, the [[Spice Girls]], [[Coldplay]], [[Amy Winehouse]] and [[Leona Lewis]].
Notable composers of classical music from the United Kingdom and the countries that preceded it include [[William Byrd]], [[Henry Purcell]], Sir [[Edward Elgar]], [[Gustav Holst]], Sir [[Arthur Sullivan]] (most famous for working with librettist Sir [[W. S. Gilbert]]), [[Ralph Vaughan Williams]], and [[Benjamin Britten]], pioneer of modern British [[opera]]. Sir [[Peter Maxwell Davies]] is one of the foremost living composers and current [[Master of the Queen’s Music]]. The UK is also home to world-renowned symphonic orchestras and choruses such as the [[BBC Symphony Orchestra]] and the [[London Symphony Chorus]]. Notable [[Conducting|conductors]] include Sir [[Simon Rattle]], [[John Barbirolli]] and Sir [[Malcolm Sargent]].
Notable composers of classical music from the United Kingdom and the countries that preceded it include [[William Byrd]], [[Henry Purcell]], Sir [[Edward Elgar]], [[Gustav Holst]], Sir [[Arthur Sullivan]] (most famous for working with librettist Sir [[W. S. Gilbert]]), [[Ralph Vaughan Williams]], and [[Benjamin Britten]], pioneer of modern British [[opera]]. Sir [[Peter Maxwell Davies]] is one of the foremost living composers and current [[Master of the Queen’s Music]]. The UK is also home to world-renowned symphonic orchestras and choruses such as the [[BBC Symphony Orchestra]] and the [[London Symphony Chorus]]. Notable [[Conducting|conductors]] include Sir [[Simon Rattle]], [[John Barbirolli]] and Sir [[Malcolm Sargent]].

GlamWiki – 54

Wednesday, April 29th, 2009

Deathstroke

Teen Titans: The Animated Series

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Although the connection is never stated in the course of the series, Slade’s son [[Jericho (comics)|Jericho]] is also introduced into the Teen Titans series during the series finale. His daughter Rose is also introduced in the animated series based comic book ”Teen Titans Go!”; a painting of Slade, without his mask, is briefly seen in the comic book.
Although the connection is never stated in the course of the series, Slade’s son [[Jericho (comics)|Jericho]] is also introduced into the Teen Titans series during the series finale. His daughter Rose is also introduced in the animated series based comic book ”Teen Titans Go!”; a painting of Slade, without his mask, is briefly seen in the comic book.
His face is not directly seen in the series, but at the end of the “Apprentice” two part episode, Robin destroyed half of Slade’s mask, revealing greenish-black hair. After Slade and Robin tag-team to fight Trigon, one of Trigon’s servants knocked off Slade’s mask, revealing a skull was all that was left of Slade’s face.
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His face is not directly seen in the series, but at the end of the “Apprentice” two part episode, Robin destroyed half of Slade’s mask, revealing greenish-black hair. After Slade and Robin tag-team to fight Trigon, one of Trigon’s servants knocked off Slade’s mask, revealing a skull was all that was left of Slade’s face. On the episode “Forces of Nature”, however, Slade is disguised as an elderly master which bares resemblance to Slade’s maskless comic book appearance.
===The Judas Contract===
===The Judas Contract===

GlamWiki – 53

Wednesday, April 29th, 2009

Yusuf Najmuddin

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{{Notability|date=April 2009}}
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</gallery>{{Notability|date=April 2009}}
Dr ”’Yusuf Najmuddin”’ (Born 1340H.[1922 A.D.] Died 22 [[Shaban ul Karim]] 1407 H.[1987 A.D.] [[Marj]], [[Qahera]] (Cairo)). He was the author of a philosophical discourse <ref>[http://archive.mumineen.org/essays/phil_discourse.html]</ref> . He was the brother of [[Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin Saheb]] and the rector of [[Al Jamea tus Saifiyah]] in [[Surat]], India and [[Karachi]], Pakistan
Dr ”’Yusuf Najmuddin”’ (Born 1340H.[1922 A.D.] Died 22 [[Shaban ul Karim]] 1407 H.[1987 A.D.] [[Marj]], [[Qahera]] (Cairo)). He was the author of a philosophical discourse <ref>[http://archive.mumineen.org/essays/phil_discourse.html]</ref> . He was the brother of [[Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin Saheb]] and the rector of [[Al Jamea tus Saifiyah]] in [[Surat]], India and [[Karachi]], Pakistan
Ameerul Jamea, as Syedi Najmuddin was popularly known by the world wide Dawoodi Bohra Muslim Community, was a many faceted diamond whose glitter shone faultlessly and continuously illuminating every conceivable aspect, life and activity of Dawat-E-Hadiyah and its million followers. During his life he became a beacon light and will remain so; for all those who tread the path of learning and knowledge.
Ameerul Jamea, as Syedi Najmuddin was popularly known by the world wide Dawoodi Bohra Muslim Community, was a many faceted diamond whose glitter shone faultlessly and continuously illuminating every conceivable aspect, life and activity of Dawat-E-Hadiyah and its million followers. During his life he became a beacon light and will remain so; for all those who tread the path of learning and knowledge.

GlamWiki – 52

Tuesday, April 28th, 2009

Taft School

Government officials and political notables: removing anyone who hasn’t achieved a truly national office

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*[[George Weyerhaeuser]] ’44, Chairman and CEO, [[Weyerhaeuser]] Company<ref>[http://community.seattletimes.nwsource.com/archive/?date=19991128&slug=2997950 Obituaries | Dilettante Oliver Hills Whitney, Dies At 75 | Seattle Times Newspaper<!– Bot generated title –>]</ref>
*[[George Weyerhaeuser]] ’44, Chairman and CEO, [[Weyerhaeuser]] Company<ref>[http://community.seattletimes.nwsource.com/archive/?date=19991128&slug=2997950 Obituaries | Dilettante Oliver Hills Whitney, Dies At 75 | Seattle Times Newspaper<!– Bot generated title –>]</ref>
===Government officials and political notables===
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===Government officials===
*[[Nathaniel Neiman Craley, Jr.]], U.S. Representative from Pennsylvania<ref>[http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=C000866 CRALEY, Nathaniel Neiman, Jr. – Biographical Information<!– Bot generated title –>]</ref>
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*[[Nathaniel Neiman Craley, Jr.]], U.S. Congressman from Pennsylvania<ref>[http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=C000866 CRALEY, Nathaniel Neiman, Jr. – Biographical Information<!– Bot generated title –>]</ref>
*[[Nelson Antonio Denis]] ’72, New York State Assemblyman
 
*[[Charles C. Finucane]] ’24, Under Secretary of the Army and [[Assistant Secretary of Defense]]<ref>http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/listofholdingshtml/listofholdingsF/FINUCANECHARLESCPapers.pdf</ref>
 
*[[Robert C. Hill]] ’38, [[United States Ambassador to Costa Rica]], [[United States Ambassador to El Salvador|El Salvador]], [[United States Ambassador to Mexico|Mexico]], [[United States Ambassador to Spain|Spain]] and [[United States Ambassador to Argentina|Argentina]]
*[[Robert C. Hill]] ’38, [[United States Ambassador to Costa Rica]], [[United States Ambassador to El Salvador|El Salvador]], [[United States Ambassador to Mexico|Mexico]], [[United States Ambassador to Spain|Spain]] and [[United States Ambassador to Argentina|Argentina]]
*[[William S. Mailliard]] ’35, U.S. Congressman, California<ref>[http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=M000070 MAILLIARD, William Somers – Biographical Information<!– Bot generated title –>]</ref>
*[[William S. Mailliard]] ’35, U.S. Congressman, California<ref>[http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=M000070 MAILLIARD, William Somers – Biographical Information<!– Bot generated title –>]</ref>
*[[Slade Mead]] ’80, former Arizona State Senator
 
*[[Joseph Irwin Miller]] ’27, American industrialist, [[Cummins|Cummins Engine Company]]
*[[Joseph Irwin Miller]] ’27, American industrialist, [[Cummins|Cummins Engine Company]]
*[[Manuel Rocha]] ’69, [[United States Ambassador to Bolivia]] 2000-02
*[[Manuel Rocha]] ’69, [[United States Ambassador to Bolivia]] 2000-02
*[[Earl T. Smith]] ’22, [[United States Ambassador to Cuba]] (1958-59)
*[[Earl T. Smith]] ’22, [[United States Ambassador to Cuba]] (1958-59)
*[[Michael Patrick William Stone]] ’42, [[United States Secretary of the Army]] (1989-93)
 
*[[Robert Taft]] 1906, U.S. Senator from Ohio 1939-53, majority leader
*[[Robert Taft]] 1906, U.S. Senator from Ohio 1939-53, majority leader
*[[Robert Taft, Jr.]] ’35, Republican Congressman 1963-65, 1967-71, Senator 1971-76
*[[Robert Taft, Jr.]] ’35, Republican Congressman 1963-65, 1967-71, Senator 1971-76
*[[Bob Taft]] ’59, [[List of Governors of Ohio|Governor of Ohio]]
*[[Bob Taft]] ’59, [[List of Governors of Ohio|Governor of Ohio]]
*[[William Howard Taft III]] ’33, [[United States Ambassador to Ireland]]
*[[William Howard Taft III]] ’33, [[United States Ambassador to Ireland]]
*[[Robert F. Wagner, Jr.]] ’29, [[Mayor of New York City]]
 
*[[John S. Wold]] ’34, U.S. Congressman, Wyoming<ref name=autogenerated3 />
*[[John S. Wold]] ’34, U.S. Congressman, Wyoming<ref name=autogenerated3 />

GlamWiki – 51

Tuesday, April 28th, 2009

Quan Pham

Requesting speedy deletion (CSD G10). (TW)

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{{db-attack}}
Quan Pham is a tall Asian boy……..HE likes glitter on his face because he thinks it makes him look very pretty.
Quan Pham is a tall Asian boy……..HE likes glitter on his face because he thinks it makes him look very pretty.
His favorite quotes are; “Tu Sabe!”, “Give it to me!”, and “oh yes, i like it like that!”.
His favorite quotes are; “Tu Sabe!”, “Give it to me!”, and “oh yes, i like it like that!”.

GlamWiki – 50

Friday, April 24th, 2009

William Wister Haines

Works

← Previous revision Revision as of 04:35, 24 April 2009
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His other books were ”The Honorable Rocky Slade” (1955), ”Target” (1964), and ”The Image” (1968). His filmography credits are
His other books were ”The Honorable Rocky Slade” (1955), ”Target” (1964), and ”The Image” (1968). His filmography credits are
”[[Alibi Ike]]” (1935), ”[[Man of Iron]]” (1935), ”[[Black Legion (film)|Black Legion]]” (1937), ”[[Slim]]” (1937), ”[[Mr. Dodd Takes the Air]]” (1937), ”[[Submarine D-1]]” (1937), ”[[The Texans]]” (1938), ”[[Beyond Glory]]” (1948), ”[[Command Decision]]” (1948), ”[[The Racket]]” (1951), ”[[One Minute to Zero]]” (1952), ”[[The Eternal Sea]]” (1955), ”[[The Wings of Eagles]]” (1957), and ”[[Torpedo Run]]” (1958).
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”[[Alibi Ike]]” (1935), ”[[Man of Iron]]” (1935), ”[[Black Legion (film)|Black Legion]]” (1937), ”[[Slim (film)|Slim]]” (1937), ”[[Mr. Dodd Takes the Air]]” (1937), ”[[Submarine D-1]]” (1937), ”[[The Texans]]” (1938), ”[[Beyond Glory]]” (1948), ”[[Command Decision]]” (1948), ”[[The Racket]]” (1951), ”[[One Minute to Zero]]” (1952), ”[[The Eternal Sea]]” (1955), ”[[The Wings of Eagles]]” (1957), and ”[[Torpedo Run]]” (1958).
===”Command Decision”===
===”Command Decision”===
While in Europe, Haines began writing a stage play, “Command Decision”, based on his 8th Air Force experiences, but was unable to sell it. Many producers rejected it, feeling it followed too closely the war’s end to have popular appeal. A publisher suggested he write it as a novel first, and the result in January 1947 was his third book, ”[[Command Decision (novel)|Command Decision]]”, which saw him return to critical and popular acclaim. The success of the novel revived the [[Command Decision (play)|play]], which ran for 409 performances on [[Broadway Theatre|Broadway]] between October 1947 and September 1948.
While in Europe, Haines began writing a stage play, “Command Decision”, based on his 8th Air Force experiences, but was unable to sell it. Many producers rejected it, feeling it followed too closely the war’s end to have popular appeal. A publisher suggested he write it as a novel first, and the result in January 1947 was his third book, ”[[Command Decision (novel)|Command Decision]]”, which saw him return to critical and popular acclaim. The success of the novel revived the [[Command Decision (play)|play]], which ran for 409 performances on [[Broadway Theatre|Broadway]] between October 1947 and September 1948.

GlamWiki – 49

Thursday, April 23rd, 2009

Marilyn Manson (band)

← Previous revision Revision as of 07:38, April 23, 2009
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|Alias =Marilyn Manson & The Spooky Kids
|Alias =Marilyn Manson & The Spooky Kids
|Background = group_or_band
|Background = group_or_band
| Genre = Alternative metal, [[Alternative rock]], [[glam rock]], [[hard rock]], [[industrial metal]], [[industrial rock]], [[shock rock]]
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| Genre = Alternative metal, [[alternative rock]], [[glam rock]], [[hard rock]], [[industrial metal]], [[industrial rock]], [[shock rock]]
|Origin = [[Fort Lauderdale, Florida|Fort Lauderdale]], [[Florida]], [[United States]]
|Origin = [[Fort Lauderdale, Florida|Fort Lauderdale]], [[Florida]], [[United States]]
|Years_active = 1989 – present
|Years_active = 1989 – present